Voyager Syndrome: Travel Madness

05Sep09

Meatloaf-Hot-Patootie-158Voyager Syndrome is the term given to a group of mental disorders relating to travel. The three most famous (which will be explained in more detail below) are Paris Syndrome, Jerusalem Syndrome, and Florence Syndrome. Voyager syndromes are a kind of culture shock, which refers to the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation, uncertainty, confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within a different and unknown cultural or social environment, such as a foreign country. It grows out of the difficulties in assimilating the new culture, causing difficulty in knowing what is appropriate and what is not. This is often combined with a dislike for or even disgust (moral or aesthetic) with certain aspects of the new or different culture.

The Disorders

Jerusalem Syndrome

Jerusalem-Syndrome-5The Jerusalem syndrome is a group of mental phenomena involving the presence of either religiously themed obsessive ideas, delusions or other psychosis-like experiences that are triggered by, or lead to, a visit to the city of Jerusalem. It is not endemic to one single religion or denomination but has affected Jews and Christians of many different backgrounds.

The best known, although not the most prevalent, manifestation of the Jerusalem syndrome is the phenomenon whereby a person who seems previously balanced and devoid of any signs of psychopathology becomes psychotic after arriving in Jerusalem. The psychosis is characterised by an intense religious theme and typically resolves to full recovery after a few weeks or after being removed from the area.

During a period of 13 years (1980-1993) for which admissions to the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Centre in Jerusalem were analysed, it was reported that 1,200 tourists with severe, Jerusalem-themed mental problems were referred to this clinic. Of these, 470 were admitted to hospital. On average, 100 such tourists have been seen annually, 40 of them requiring admission to hospital.

Paris Syndrome

Picture 386Paris syndrome is a transient psychological disorder encountered by some people visiting or vacationing in Paris, France. Japanese visitors are observed to be especially susceptible. From the estimated six million yearly visitors the number of reported cases is significant. It is characterized by a number of psychiatric symptoms as acute delusional states, hallucinations, feelings of persecution (delusional belief of being a victim of prejudice, aggression, hostility to others), a derealization, a depersonalization, anxiety, and also psychosomatic manifestations such as dizziness, tachycardia, sweating, etc..

The four main factors to cause the disorder are:

1. Language barrier – few Japanese speak French and vice versa. This is believed to be the principal difficulty and is thought to engender the remainder. Apart from the obvious differences between French and Japanese many everyday phrases and idioms are shorn of meaning and substance when translated adding to the confusion of some who haven’t previously encountered such.

2. Cultural difference – the authors state that the large difference between not only the languages but the manner in which Latin populations communicate on an interpersonal level in comparison to the rigidly formal Japanese culture proves too great a difficulty for some Japanese visitors. It is thought that it is the rapid and frequent fluctuations in mood, tense and attitude especially in the delivery of humor that cause the most difficulty.

3. Idealized image of Paris – it is also speculated as manifesting from an individual’s inability to reconcile a disparity between the Japanese popular image and the reality of Paris.

4. Exhaustion – finally, it is thought that the over-booking of one’s time and energy, whether on a business trip or on holiday, in attempting to cram too much into every moment of a stay in Paris along with the effects of jet lag all contribute to the psychological destabilization of some.

Florence Syndrome

Stendhal-1Also sometimes referred to as Stendhal Syndrome, Florence syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particularly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place. The term can also be used to describe a similar reaction to a surfeit of choice in other circumstances, e.g. when confronted with immense beauty in the natural world.

It is named after the famous 19th century French author Stendhal (pseudonym of Henri-Marie Beyle), who described his experience with the phenomenon during his 1817 visit to Florence, Italy in his book Naples and Florence: A Journey from Milan to Reggio.

Although there are many descriptions of people becoming dizzy and fainting while taking in Florentine art, especially at the Uffizi, dating from the early 19th century on, the syndrome was only named in 1979, when it was described by Italian psychiatrist Graziella Magherini, who observed and described more than 100 similar cases among tourists and visitors in Florence. The syndrome was first diagnosed in 1982.

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Text is derived from Wikipedia.

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30 Responses to “Voyager Syndrome: Travel Madness”

  1. 1 imcrystalclear

    This list was interesting. It is hard to imagine people experiencing some of these affects while traveling to a foriegn country, especially now a days with the ease of traveling from country to country. Good List. Thanks

  2. 2 Astrid

    Jerusalem Syndrome: My husband had the opposite reaction, he went as a Christian and came back feeling as if had seen a middle-ages theme park.

    Paris Syndrome: ” feelings of persecution (delusional belief of being a victim of prejudice, aggression, hostility to others”, No its real

    Stendahl Syndrome: I want to experience it for myself

    • Interestingly every time I went to Paris I found the French to be incredibly friendly and nice people. It was often a welcome break from the rather sullen English people I was surrounded by in London.

    • 4 Jenna

      Astrid, concerning Paris Syndrome…
      You’re not American are you?
      Lol I’m sorry, but I had to ask. I find as a Canadian traveling around, people were quite rude until they find out you’re Canadian. They assume I’m American. I lived in South Texas for a long time where the Mexican population is huge. They had a very strong dislike for white Americans, but when they discover you’re Canadian, you’re suddenly their best friend. I’m not sure why…

      • 5 Jules

        — Warning: wall-of-text from France —

        I think I remember this Paris Syndrome being mentionned on ListVerse (might have been Cracked – I’m reading too many list websites) – and the description emphasised that what triggers the shock is the discrepancy between the idealized ethereal/romantic, stuck-in-the-1920’s image of Paris that a lot of movies (or even travel agencies I bet) give of Paris, and the reality of a capital city. The hurried, rude, aggressive attitude of its inhabitants can very well be attributed to fast-paced life that can be found in any capital of the world.

        Now, I’m French myself and I hate Paris. People there are obnoxious even to their fellow countrymen, and pretty much everyone in the country despises parisians in return. They tend to be self-centered, superficial and full of themselves compared to the rest of the population (AND they give the rest of us a bad rep).

        As for cultural shock, I’m very much willing to believe that it’s quite a violent experience. My boyfriend is from the Netherlands, where social interaction is also ruled by a certain amount of formal politeness, and a general respect and tolerance towards your fellow man (because of the weed, if you ask me).
        Everytime he comes here (in France), he has a hard time dealing with people bumping into eachother, yelling at eachother for no reason or just being plain rude. Even on a personnal level, he still sometimes has trouble dealing with my somewhat direct, loud and rude manners (from his point of view :P).
        And that’s only on a European scale, so I can only imagine how Japanese people can feel about that.

        Likewise, the language barrier is impenetrable. Even in Paris’ trainstations, help desk employees can at best babble a couple of words of English. The French in general are distrustful of any foreign influence on their culture, and don’t see cultural exchange as enriching but rather as a risk of dissolution of their own heritage, which they consider valuable above all else’s.
        This might explain why we tend to be nicer to Canadians (who are to us, after all, almost French) than to other people.
        You just have to see the terrified look of waiters when they overhear you speaking in a foreign language, or the exhausted, vacant stare of tourists followed by incredible relief when they finally find a local who can speak English (happens to me every summer).

        Now I’ve noticed a lot of Americans actively taking the defense of France lately, probably to compensate for their guilt stemming from the France-bashing a few years back. But it shouldn’t keep you from being objective. I mean, I absolutely love my country and my culture, but I can see the bad sides as well.
        So yeah, we ain’t very nice. But I’m totally okay with that 😀

        • 6 downhighway61

          Agreed J. Paris has wonderful and extremely nice people. I can’t wait to go back.

          • I would love to go back too.

      • 8 Looser

        Thats because americans are better than the rest of the world and everyone else is jealous :P. hahahaha im kidding but as an american kid thats what i was taught. they feed you propaganda over here from the moment you are born.

  3. 9 Zenayda

    I’m sorry – each of these ‘syndromes’ sound like grade A bullshit to me. I’m trying my hardest to understand them but no, they just sound ridiculously silly. I can’t ever imagine anyone ever being affected by these and I think if I did – I’d assume there were underlying problems – as opposed to these stand-alone ‘syndromes’.

  4. 10 ceerjaeb

    I saw similar things happen to little kids at Disney World. 😀

    I absolutely LOVE this website and it has been added to my daily to do list! Great work!

  5. 11 totalstranger

    I get this weird feeling when I’m in Canada. like a Twilight Zone episode where everyone is ALMOST like people in the states just a little “off”. and nothing tastes the same there not even the McDonalds to me. It’s evil *shudders*

  6. 12 MN

    I am an American living in England. I go to France at least two or three times a year. Though I have yet to go to Paris, I have found the French to be very nice, fun, and interesting people. They don’t even hate me for being American, which is something that my British husband warned me about, especially since I am from Texas.

    Great post, as usual, but I have a hard time understanding why people actually go through these “syndromes”.

  7. I think I have this. I am terrified of leaving the US. Even going into Mexico was scary for me. I also hate flying (did it once, never again).

    • 14 Ink

      Lols, I’m terrified of going to the US. Even thinking of going to non-Asian countries gets me scared.

    • 15 crank

      u are then living a life in oblivion.

  8. 16 Hailtree

    The first time I saw the Eiffel Tower I wanted to scream and jump. I mean it’s something that I just see in pictures and something that I would never thought of seeing in my entire life. I was THAT ecstatic (I’m from the Philippines). I guess it’s similar to what those little kids in Disney World experience.

  9. 17 Richard Ryan

    Two literary references for those interested in exploring further (these are novel’s in which the noted psychological disorders are imaginatively evoked and play a central role):

    On Jerusalem Syndrome see Robert Stone’s “Damascus Gate”

    On Stendhal Syndrome see Chuck Palahniuk’s “Diary”

  10. 18 Jono

    I bet you that 98% of the afflicted people were attention seeking ****heads.

    Similarly, many people who go to a televangelical exorcism, will admit later they acted the whole thing. Exactly the same with hynotism. They all reveal secretly, they were acting it up.

    Just because something has a “syndrome” suffix doesn’t mean it’s real.

  11. 19 elise

    isnt florence syndrome also called “art attack”?
    when i went to italy with my school i got seperated from the group and couldnt find my way back to them and these street people kept trying to talk to me in italian it was the most scariest moment of my life so i can understand where a few of these syndromes come from

  12. 20 Kalik

    I know I’m completely late to jump on the comments thread here, but Paris Syndrome is apparently really prominent in Japan, and in many cases the afflicted person will refuse to get in a plane to fly back home, much less leave their hotel, so their parents have to go to Paris to get them to come back.

  13. 21 Nick

    I remember during my stay in Japan, a fellow European (dutch, I believe) had to be sent home after only a few weeks. His symptoms of culture shock included lack of appetite, insomnia, panic attacks, etc. It was a huge surprise to me at the time. I guess he suffered from Voyager Syndrome.

  14. 22 david S

    These are real phenomena. The most recent mass example of the syndrome was observed by German Army Psychologists during the German onslaught upon The Soviet Union. Young soldiers had been schooled for 10 years in the barbarity and animalistic nature of Soviet Citizens. Soldiers and school children alike believed that Stalin had but one ambition; to murder, pillage and rape the German Homeland; there were even prayers said in schools to “protect our Fatherland from the Devils of Communist Russia”!

    Upon encountering the impoverished and terrified Russian population therefore, and in a country with an impenetrable Slavic tongue, German soldiers set about murdering millions of civilised human beings with a glee driven by alienation and terror of Communism. There were no recorded marriages between German soldiers and Soviet woman, unlike in EVERY other occupied country. Further, the presence of women in the Red Army completely disoriented Germans educated in the traditional view that a womans place was at home with her family.

    The USA learned none of these lessons and Vietnam was a rolling saga of atrocity, civilian terror and mass rape. The same story is repeating itself in both Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Only the British, with their long history of conquest and empire building know how to handle the devastating psychological impact of policing foreign lands. To date, the British Army, whilst remaining one of the most mobile and fierce fighting forces in the world, have successfully concluded several operations without a single civilian casualty.

    There are lessons to be learned for America – look to your old allies for advice.

  15. Да, было бы смешно, если б к сожалению не было так грустно …

  16. 24 maria w.

    Remember the 200 women raped by russians in berlin. It is impossible to justify russians raping 200 women.

    The german soldiers were protecting their women. they knew that it was necesary to kill as many russian as possible to stop women being raped by soldiers in berlin.

    if german soldiers did not eliminate everyone it would mean their women and children in berlin and germany would all be rAPED by russian soldier.

    • 25 WiTaimre

      Ib Berlin there were “only” 200 known cases of raping by “sowjet-Russian” soldiers? – in Königsberg “they” managed to rape nearly any female person between 10-11years up to 80years, beginning when conquering the city, 8th of April 1945 and not yet having finished it until July of 1947 and later. We had been there, my family knows only 2 women who had the luck to be never raped in those days, beeing extremely cautious and with great deal of luck, but the fear and horror didn’t finish lifelong – but people didn’t be able to speak about that more than a few words, they were strictly educucated never so speak about sexual intercourse, not the regular, not the irregular, and they felt, their husbands – IF still alive and IF ever coming back and IF ever find another again in the great devastated world without news for the captured – the husbands wouldn’t understand why they, their wifes, could be raped AND still alive and didn’t die by free will (we know cases of suicide) – and “letting” the enemy do such. Maybe a lot of wifes tried to escape and it wasn’t only the hunger and need, that in 2 years 9 from 10 of the conquered women, children and 10 of 10 of the elderly civilians were dead (more than 60y old and alive was 1 single couple in October of 1947, when reaching more the Western lands, I read).
      – But this wasn”t a special-Sowjet problem, it was a special form of culture-shock, I assume. It was reported in 1914, when the zaristic army entered the Eastern Prussian borders (then it was my grandmother, running away, with my father the babe, hiding in the woods near Willenberg (Wielbark). several days later the nearby “Battle of Tannenberg” followed and the 2 great Russian armys wer imprisoned.
      – When looking in the Russian camps, the German army wondered, because they found a lot of female-underwear collected, heaps of white trousers, German-production
      – and our military people didn’t understand this and ask in remembering textes: Did the Russ.soldiers steal and buy that as souvernirs for their families? – But in 1945 we conquered Eastern Prussians learnt the meaning sadly and exactly – they took away the under-wear, the trousers from each raped woman as “proof” or so, for “done!” – it was deep and cold winter when beginning thus, 30th of Januar 1945, and the female maiden and wife refugees lost by and by each of them their last underwear. It was no protection, yet to have lost this “proof” – a lot of women died by the repeatings with the next arriving russ.soldiers
      – 17 x in 1 day-and-night we know from our own family, until a helpful “Ukrrainian” soldier, an army cook, whispered to this deadly exhausted woman: “Point to me and cry “Moj panje!” (tell the next ones: He is my husband) – and stay always near me.” – she did so, and he never touched her, until he had to depart in July 1945 to follow the troops in the more westward regions. But we civilians were not allowed to leave the conquered city.
      Since the end of war, in May 1945, other soldiers arrived when others departed, and the things were as bad as in the first time, each russ.soldian knew, it was strictly forbidden to rape the population’s wifes and maidens (only the first 2 weeks it was “tolerated” in sight of the Law-of-War, we heard of), but it went on, even when it became possible for us to cry for help – house by house all the women and children crying on together – when a raping started again between us, this “telegram” arose unto the Natschalniks housing near our street.
      Then might happen, that the military police arrived as quick, that the raper was still in action, and they fetched hin as half naked as he was, dragged him before the door and shot him dead, put him by a leg and threw him on their army-car, and drove away with him – this horror-scenario was nearly worse to cope with that, for the children and other standing bys.
      They used to come in pairs in our houses, the one has the Kalashnikoff-rifle, the other does, and then the other takes the rifle and so on
      – outside the houses 1 drunken russ.man was enough to be endangered in each age, relatively fit or just starving, in each situation, but then a living little child in the arm or going hand-in-hand with a wife could be the rescue, but this was later – not in the beginning of that time –
      – the view of us – the conquered civilians was deeply depressed: “war is war”, may be it’s the same in each war of the world, blood awakes the “sleeping beast”, we thought – maybe a reflex?
      – but then, in 1946, 1947, 1948 the war stood still, no further reason to hurt us more – we could sadly understand that we all were to starve “For Leningrad and Stalingrad” – St.Petersburg, we now had heard of, the starved Russian city – we could imagine, this form of revenge were we, starving now, also – and we did, 9 of 10 civilians –
      – but Stalingrad? – there were the German army-troops the starving people until captured, in both cases we never could have been thus permanently rapers.

      BUT – our topic is not war but visiting a foreign land and there becoming crazy, and the experience, that several places are the reason for very sopecial mental diseases, those “Syndromes”.
      – the wars are only special forms oft The Tourist-Syndromes, only more complicated by the daily worst things that happen in wars. I remember a lot of tales from former soldiers who didn’t remember the fights but the lands, and some of them didn’t believe in propaganda
      – they told of a poor but nice rural Russian population they met, one left the troops in 1945 and tried to go alone back – coming alone, a single man, people did help despite the fact Stalin forbid it – there was’t really a hatred between the people of this or that nation – as long as no fighting, police action or uprising changed the souls.
      – Even in our sad situation in starving Koenigsberg we knew to make differences, we even made up little friendships to Russian couples, not fearing those men,
      – I think, there is a greater sample of “over-we” (not “over-I” as Freud postulates) this makes the problems, it is like a so-called “bad spirit” overwhelming the single character in some situations, not always – not totally without a free-will-power to say “stop”, but in foreign lands even the tourist may activate his “different spirits” or they activate themselves, if they had been always with special signals (p.e.Vodka).
      – And this is the “Tourist-Syndrom”, it is a real illness, changing behaviour and feeling.
      I visited Paris 3 times, some days, but nearly without money, me too, I lost my group once, but I knew a bit of French language, my pronounciation is very good, but my vocabulary is small. We were told, that they wouldn’t speak German or English, then I managed to “speak” with hands, and a few words in French, not mentioning my Gerrman nationality because I knew they saw it, theit hearts were still hurt from the war – the minbne, too. But they loved me singing German songs – and I loved their Chansons (Francoise Hardy-style). They were not friendly or polite, but in hurry, I understand this. – ok, I went home an learnt.
      The 3rd time I visited Paris, now coming from Hamburg, with less money than before, and a friend, she was a huge young lady of 17years, I a little female student of 25years. When they looked at us, they grinned a bit “typical British looking tourists” – Some told me, my sound is similar to Toulouse or so, not the northern French. But then, they start to spaek quicly a lot at once – and I don’t understand the most of that, staying polite and “swim”.
      I always learn about a land I wish to visit, we were in Switzerland, Austria, Belgia, Northern Italia, Venedig, too, 3 times in Estonia, and 2x in Spain, and I was alone visituing Polonia. It’s always the same – speak at first a little in their own language, this sentence should be perfectly in sound: “Please – I’m not able to speak Your language, please help me – would You prefer English or German? I’m a German.” (No hablo Espagnol / Io no parlo Italiano / Je ne parle pas beaucoup de Francais / etc)
      – this is helpful in each land, as I saw.
      Once I visited with my Ma Jerusalem. My modern Hebrew sounds a bit like Abraham, may be, and, other than in Paris, the “spirit” in the air is to feel instantly when landing in Tel Aviv. I lost all fear for my life. ok, I’m a Bible-freak and knew each km of this land I had the chance to show it to my mother. Sometimes we went together, sometimes each another way. They always have some German Jewish or Jiddish-speaking people in the near to speak German. Its nearly like in Tallinn, if there is no German speaker they’ll find an English speaker or each other language You could use to communicate. But the “frame” of my talking is always in their language. That opens the welcoming me.
      One of the problems with tourists in Holy Land Israel or in Jerusalem in special is really the tourist becoming changed in his behaviour and feeling. We came from Frankfurt /Germany by plane, and there we feared the massive German securtity – here al watchman – there a tank outside the window – wow! – and in the midst the people to check in: for Israel, for Iran, Irak, Turkya side by side we got our check and divided to our machines, entered the plane, sat down, had to leave it again (a bomb warning?) and to take another plane. .
      – uj. DARE NOT!!! was the virtual message to us all together – *g* typical German economical sense for orders.
      – In Israel, I know the security is omnipresent and much closer, the land needs it since about 4’000 years. But therefore it is a part of natural life, not of orders. I could imagine that other people with an idea about Jesus, Moses, Elija or Petrus do not really know, what they think about them, but meet a clue to open closed gates, ideas from children’s education-times – not necessarily the own, but children meet children an dispute a lot of things and nobody of them knew this really. I remember such disputes in my childhood – the most of the others were not pious.
      Some of those tourists, pilgrims, visitors, then loose their self-identification inside themselves – You may meet one, dancing alone in the desert of Qumran, well, it is a free land, but with hidden dangers – another feels himself St.Paul and begins to preach to some Arabs – near Bethlehem, searching the sheeps – they must have sheeps, because David was a sheperd, and Jesus born in a stable – ok, they have some sheeps, they would have them even if they wouldn’t need a real sheep there.
      Our visit was in the early 1980th and we could visit all parts of the land
      – our Hungarian Guide told us, that about 200 people each year must been brought to the doctors for “being” St.John the Bapt., or Jeremija the prophet, or Abraham, or Jesus himself – but it is not only an harmless idea, because they sometimes become very angry if a person doesn’t believe them, cry around, get feaver, run in the desert and starve if nobody brings them to the doctors.
      All the inhabitants, Israelis (only 6 of 10 are Jewish) from 37 language-groups, and Palestines (not all are Muslimin, but the most Arab speaking), in the Holy Land know this phenomena of the Jerusalem-Syndrome.
      Florence and Rome – my mother was there, alone, have mor “Spirit” of the place than modern Venecia, I assume. Maybe in Venedig, some people begin to feel themselves a Gondoliere and try to sing, but the modern times make it very expensive to drive with the water-taxi, and may be, the Venecian Carneval brings special day’s-“spirits”. On the other hand – this cannot be a mass-phenomen.
      As for Florence, Mantua, Milano, Syracouse – some special professions are highly affectable, painting, sculpture, historia, opera
      oh yeah, I heard the story of a man – in DDR-time – who lomged for Mantua, the “city of Don Giovanni”, but it was impossible, nobody allowed him to visit Italia – then he prepared his “illegal leaving of the workers paradise” 20 years long – not telling his wife a single word – then managed to escape by sea, to Denmark and really – had his look on Mantua. All perfect. He only wished to have his foot on this same place of Mantua he saw in the opera film, and then to return to DDR and his wife. Then came the Mantua-Syndrome and overwhelmed him, he went to Sicilia, stayed there, began to work in a job, and nearly took another wife, then suddenly remembering that he wanted only to have a look on Mantua and then return. He remembered his problem – the “special DDR” gouvernement – he really had forgotten all – his wife could have lost her home and sit in prison, because he sent no sign of life and quickly go back. So he retourned, it happened about 1988. The freedom was near.
      Well, this is a long text, but how should anybody understand the difference between a little spleen and a real psychiatric “Syndrom” as a real sad and sometimes dangerous illness when speaking about anything without some information, in telegram-style?
      Bye then 🙂
      WiT

  17. very use full information. thank you.

  18. It’s easier to keep out of the conversation and not take the chance of being misunderstood.

  19. 28 Lisa

    I have experienced the Stendhal Syndrome myself. Once, while out in my grandmother’s backyard several years ago (I was a child then). She lives on a lake and one night I went outside and I looked up at the night sky and became so overwhelmed and almost frightened. I felt as if the sky would swallow me whole. But it was beautiful. It just made me realize right then that I was just a minute speck in the universe. And, most recently I saw the “Star Spangled Banner (the flag that flew during the Fort McHenry battle in Baltimore, Md back in 1814). It’s currently on display at the Smithsonian in Washington, DC. It’s a huge flag and I became overwhelmed with emotion looking at it.

  20. I gotta say, it’s kind of incredible how many guys I’m friends with who are dating Asian women. I’ll confess that I do find some Asian ladies to be very pretty, but what do you think the attraction is really based on? Why do some white guys only go out with Asian women…can somebody explain the attraction to me?

  21. 30 Desanera Starling

    My mom had a strange reaction in Florence – she started speaking French. We are hispanic americans (awful term), and her first language is spanish, and she knew a small amount of both French and Italian, and for some reason lapsed into French, and pretty much couldn’t stop till we left Florence for Sienna and Rome.

    I myself experienced something – when I left Florence, it felt like I had been punched in the stomach, and felt acute desolation. I hadn’t thought I liked it THAT much until I left. It was very strange.

    I fully believe the Paris syndrome with the Japanese, I work with Japanese visitors to NYC, and they do have some shock. NYC gets demonized as much as Paris gets glamorized, so that might help as well.


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